## Investigation of tanpura string vibrations using a two-dimensional time-domain model incorporating coupling and bridge friction

Bridges, Jamie and Van Walstijn, Maarten

Proceedings of the Third Vienna Talk on Music Acoustics (2015), pp. 126–131**Abstract:**Tanpura string vibrations have been investigated previously using numerical models based on energy conserving schemes derived from a Hamiltonian description in one-dimensional form. Such time-domain models have the property that – for the lossless case - the numerical Hamiltonian (representing total energy of the system) can be proven to be constant from one time step to the next, irrespective of any of the system parameters; in practice the Hamiltonian can be shown to be conserved within machine precision. Models of this kind can reproduce a jvari effect, which results from the bridge-string interaction. However the one-dimensional formulation has recently been shown to fail to replicate the jvari’s strong dependence on the thread placement. As a first step towards simulations which accurately emulate this sensitivity to the thread placement, a two-dimensional model is proposed, incorporating coupling of a controllable level between the two string polarisations at the string termination opposite from the barrier. In addition, a friction force acting when the string slides across the bridge in the horizontal direction is introduced, thus effecting a further damping mechanism. In this preliminary study, the string is terminated at the position of the thread. As in the one-dimensional model, an implicit scheme has to be used to solve the system, employing Newton’s method to calculate the updated positions and momentums of each string segment. The two-dimensional model is proven to be energy conserving when the loss parameters are set to zero, irrespective of the coupling constant. Both frequency-dependent and independent losses are then added to the string, so that the model can be compared to analogous instruments. The influence of coupling and the bridge friction are investigated.

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**Keywords**

distributed contact forcenumerical modellingTanpuraHamiltonian description**Status**

Invited Paper

not reviewed